ESKAYEF PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.
Enalapril is indicated in- All grades of essential hypertension and renovascular hypertension either alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents especially thiazide diuretics. Prevention of symptomatic heart failure. Treatment of congestive heart failure (adjunct), usually in combination with diuretics and digitalis. Prevention of coronary ischaemic events in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Enalapril is also used either alone or as an adjunct in the treatment of angina, diabetic nephropathy and Raynaud's disease.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
Enalapril, after hydrolysis to enalaprilate, inhibits Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE). ACE is a peptidyl dipeptidase that catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor substance angiotensin II. Angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex. The beneficial effects of enalapril in hypertension and heart failure appear to result primarily from suppression of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system
Hypertension: Initially 5 mg once daily if used alone or 2.5 mg daily if used in addition to diuretic, in elderly patients or in patients with renal impairment. Usual maintenance dose is 10-20 mg once daily. However, in severe hypertension it may be increased to a maximum of 40 mg once daily. Heart failure (adjunct) and asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction: Initially 2.5 mg under close medical supervision. Usual maintenance dose is 20 mg daily in 1-2 divided doses
Combination with other antihypertensive agents such as b blockers, Methyldopa, calcium antagonists and diuretics may increase the antihypertensive efficacy. Adrenergic blocking drugs should only be combined with Enalapril under careful supervision. Concomitant Propranolol may reduce the bioavailability of Enalapril, but this does not appear to be of any clinical significance. Concomitant therapy with Lithium may increase the serum Lithium concentration.
Aortic stenosis or outflow tract obstruction. Renovascular disease. Severe resistant HTN. Peripheral vascular disease or generalized atherosclerosis.
Dizziness and headache are more commonly reported side effects. Fatigue and asthenia were reported in 2-3% of patients. Other side effects occurred in less than 2% of patients and included hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, nausea, diarrhoea, muscle cramps, rash and cough. Less frequently renal dysfunction, renal failure and oliguria have been reported. Angioedema, hyperkalemia and hyponatremia have also been reported rarely
Category D: Contraindicated in pregnancy. The drug is excreted in trace amount in human milk and caution should be exercised if given to nursing mothers.
symptoms- Lightheadedness, dizziness, or fainting Decrease in urine output Drowsiness, headache, or back pain Slow or irregular heartbeat. Management- Fluids through an intravenous line (IV) Medications to increase blood pressure Other treatments based on complications that occur Closely monitoring the heart and lungs.
Assess renal function; regular WBC counts in patient w/ collagen vascular disease eg SLE & scleroderma. Patient receiving immunosuppressive therapy; those prone to salt or water depletion. Pregnancy.